Evidence, Commentary, and Judgment

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7.3 Recommendations of the Tribunal

On the basis of this Judgment, the Tribunal believe that a series of Recommendations follow; in many instances, these recommendations are implicit in the Conclusions, but try to take some account of practical concerns, including the reality of vast arsenals of nuclear weapons and patterns of severe mistrust:

  1. The main nuclear weapons states should immediately adopt a series of provisional measures to minimize the role of nuclear weapons in national security policy; these provisional measures could include declarations of no first use, a moratorium on testing, freeze on new weapons systems, affirmation of the commitment to avoid the militarization of space, and the disavowal and dismantling of weapons with first-strike characteristics;
  2. The initiation of negotiations without preconditions and in good faith to bring national security policy into conformity with international law on matters of nuclear weapons policy as set forth in the Judgment;
  3. The initiation of negotiations without preconditions and in good faith on specific steps to achieve the verified destruction of existing stockpiles of nuclear weapons;
  4. The immediate effort to obtain a resolution within the General Assembly of the United Nations and in legal and quasi-legal bodies throughout the world to receive with approval the Judgment of this Tribunal, including its Conclusions and Recommendations;
  5. The initiation of an effort to obtain an Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the status of nuclear weapons, strategic doctrines, and war plans;
  6. The initiation of an effort to promote an international treaty that embodies the conclusions reached in the Judgment of this Tribunal;
  7. The initiation of a massive, global educational program on the subject-matter of nuclear war and on the relevance of international law and the Nuremberg Principles to its avoidance;
  8. The initiation of a massive, global effort to persuade lawyers, jurists and their professional associations to pledge their commitment to the implementation of international law and the Nuremberg Principles even in relation to their own government and its leaders;
  9. The organization of educational efforts along the lines of the Tribunal's Judgment geared to the specific situation of the various sectors of society, seeking especially to assure that scientists, engineers, doctors, and chaplains will not participate directly or indirectly in preparations for nuclear war;
  10. The encouragement within the sectors of various societies of a variety of forms of opposition and acts of resistance to the nuclear arms race and its manifestations, including having recourse to courts and legislatures to challenge the lawfulness of official policies;
  11. The promotion of the understanding that acts of resistance reasonably responsive to unlawful policies relating to nuclear weapons should be protected under a new doctrine of "lawful civil disobedience";
  12. The acceptance worldwide by professional bodies, of professional codes of conduct that state and emphasize individual and professional responsibility towards humanity when practising any profession or trade.

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© 1985-2005 Geoffrey Darnton. All rights reserved.