LONDON NUCLEAR WARFARE TRIBUNAL
Commentary, and Judgment
The Nuremberg Principles of International Law
Any person who commits an act which constitutes a crime under
international law is responsible therefore and liable to punishment
The fact that internal law does not impose a penalty for an act which
constitutes a crime under international law does not relieve the person
who committed the act from responsibility under international law
The fact that a person who committed an act which constitutes a crime
under international law acted as Head of State or responsible
government official does not relieve him from responsibility under
The fact that a person acted pursuant to order of his government or of
a superior does not relieve him from responsibility under international
law, provided a moral choice was in fact possible to him.
Any person charged with a crime under international law has the right
to a fair trial on the facts and law.
The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under
- Crimes against peace:
- Planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression
or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or
- Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment
of any of the acts mentioned under (i).
- War Crimes:
Violations of the laws or customs of war which include, but are not
limited to, murder, ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the
seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property,
wanton destruction of cities, towns, or villages, or devastation not
justified by military necessity.
- Crimes against humanity:
Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman
acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on
political, racial or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such
persecutions are carried out in execution of or in connection with any
crime against peace or any war crime.
Complicity in the commission of a crime against peace, a war crime, or
a crime against humanity as set forth in Principle VI is a crime under
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