Evidence, Commentary, and Judgment

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7.2.2 Implications for Statesmen, Policy-Makers, Strategists, Advisors, Scientists, Engineers, Military Commanders in Nuclear Weapons States and their Allies

  1. Violations of laws of war by governments entail criminal responsibility for those individuals who implement such illegal public policy by their activity, even if undertaken in the line of professional duty or pursuant to superior orders;
  2. Preparations for nuclear war and threats to use nuclear weapons involve the commission of international crimes, including Crimes Against Humanity in the Nuremberg sense;
  3. Preparations to initiate nuclear war by surprise attack or through the deployment of first-strike weapons systems constitute Crimes Against Peace in the Nuremberg sense;
  4. Depending upon the overall knowledge and role of an individual, avoidance of criminal taint can be achieved only by withdrawal from all participation, direct and indirect, in criminal and unlawful activity, as well as the discharge of an affirmative duty to secure compliance with international law by all reasonable means.

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© 1985-2005 Geoffrey Darnton. All rights reserved.